To fight poverty, hunger and starvation, by encouraging more Nigerians to engage in the business of food production. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Plant diseases are a significant yield and quality constraint for growers of broadacre crops in Western Australia. Stored-grain insects can also produce great damage. Of major concern are the downy mildews of maize caused by several species in the genera Sclerospora, Sclerophthora and Peronosclerospora. Spray Mancozeb 2.5g/lit or Dithane M-45 spray can be taken (0.4%) as soon as first symptoms are observed and it can be repeated at 10 days interval till flowering. Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) • Most destructive pests of maize and sorghum. © 2014-2020, AgroBusiness Times - www.agrobusinessngr.com. Nitrogen Requirements of Annual Crops Fact Sheet (UC Davis) Pest Management for Maize. Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. Bacterial Stalk Rot: Common Maize Diseases, 2. A mild sweet fermenting odour accompanies such rotting. Use resistant varieties like DHM 103, Ganga Safed – 2 and avoid sowing of suceptable varieties like DHM 105. In Africa smearing tubers with wood ash or cow dung shows reduced nematode infection in field. In 1949 it was found in Sierra Leone, and in 1950 in the Ivory Coast, Ghana and Southern Nigeria. Chlorotic stripes, 3-7 mm wide will develop and they further extend in parallel fashion and may in severe cases cover the entire leaf lamina. Circular to elongate golden brown or cinnamon brown, powdery, erumpent pustules appear on both leaf surfaces. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Diseases Index; Use the links below to find out more about the key disease threats in wheat. Crops covered are: cereals (maize, millet, sorghum, rice), legumes (groundnuts, beans and cowpeas) roots and Cephalosporium maydis is primarily soil borne and may infect young maize plants more readily than other plants through roots or mesocotyl. 3.1. The choice of variety will depend on market requirements, environmental conditions, whether the crop is irrigated and the level of disease resistance required.Varieties are continually changing so ensure you have up-to-date varietal information. Lepidopteran stalk boring larvae cause significant economic losses to maize (Zea mays L.) production throughout the world.One of the major corn borer pests is the European corn borer (ECB) [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] [].This pest reduces maize yield not only damaging kernels by direct feeding, but also tunneling stalks which cause plant lodging at harvest. The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. Then it moved on to the Cameroons, to east Africa and far as Zululand. Common Maize Diseases, Symptoms And Treatment. National Agricultural Research Institutes, Stakeholders canvass engagement of youths in N13tr livestockÂ, Experts mull Africa’s adoption of Chinese import substitution model, COVID-19: Why Nigerians should avoid imported frozen foods now, Buhari restates directive to CBN not to support food, fertilizer importation, How To Start Rice Farming Business In Nigeria Or Africa (Step By Step), 1. READ MORE: How To Start Rice Farming Business In Nigeria Or Africa (Step By Step). Estimates of average global losses to diseases and pests range from 11–30% (Oerke & Dehne, 2004; Savary et al., 2019). APHIS protects the United States agricultural interests related to non-native plants, animals, insects and diseases as well as monitoring and managing existing agricultural pests and diseases. Key to maize ratings (1) End use Gray Leaf Spot. As the crop matures brownish black pustules containing dark thick walled two celled teliospores develop. In advance stages the stalk loses its healthy green colour, lower portions become dry,shrunken with or without wrinklings, hardens and turn purple to dark brown which in more prominent on lower internodes. Pest and Diseases Image Library, ... Corn leaf aphids are vectors of Maize dwarf mosaic virus. In many regions, especially highlands of South America and the Far East, it is considered to be the most important insect pest. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Causal organism: Perenosclerospora sorghi. They fail to develop further and the ears hang down simply from the plant. The 67 countries grow 84 percent of the global production of wheat, rice, maize, soybean and potato. These diseases were originally reported as limiting factors in maize production in Southeast Asian countries, and later the disease spread to African countries where maize and sorghum are cultivated. Rust due to Puccinia sorghi is found in the USA and is common throughout highlands of subtropical areas of Latin America and Africa. Use of resistant varieties like DMR 1, DMR 5 and Ganga 11. The disease kills the plant prematurely after flowering. Most of the important diseases of maize are foliar and the more common ones are rusts, leaf blights, leaf spots, brown spots, downy mildew, and maize streak virus (MSV). The list below comprises a large set of the pests and diseases we regulate, monitor, or … Seed treatment with Metalaxyl at 4 g/kg and foliar spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ at 2g/l is recommended. diseases that affect the maize crop worldwide, with basic information on pathogens and symptoms. It was established in 1907, by Henri la Fontaine (Nobel Peace Prize laureate of 1913), and Paul Otlet, a founding father of what is now called information science.Â. Common Rust. Nigerians question Garba Shehu for saying slaughtered Borno farmers had no military clearance to farm, Oil Palm Plantations Panacea For Nigerian Economy- Kogi Agric Commissioner, Livestock Development Conference To Address Challenges – FAO, Kebbi Govt, Agric firm, sign MOU for management of 100 tractors. Finally from these islands it invaded North Borneo, Thailand, Malaya, and the Philippines. A diagnostic key facilitates quick identification of diseases and their effects. The European corn-borer Ostrinia nubilalis has a world wide distribution and causes great economic damage. Infected plants do not show symptoms until they reach to tasseling. Stalk rots cause wilting of the plants before or after pollination thus decreasing their yield. However, pests and crop diseases put global food supplies at risk. Hybrids Ganga Safed-2, DHM 103, show significantly less disease incidence than other hybrids. They are vein limited. The crop is also very popular in the low- and mid-hill areas of the western and northeastern regions. Worldwide, yield losses caused by pests and diseases are estimated to average 21.5% in wheat, 30.0% in rice, 22.6% in maize, 17.2% in potato, and 21.4% in soybean ; these crops … You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. In … The first book to deal with pests in a scientific way was John Curtis ’s Farm Insects, published in 1860. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Causal organism: Cephalosporium … Corn earworm is the larva of a moth known as Helicoverpa zea. In traditional areas, the crop is often grown in marginal eco-regions, primarily as a subsistence crop to meet food needs. Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan 3g/kg seed. Probably this has been one of the most devastating maize diseases ever known. Most fungi require very moist conditions in which to … Plant hybrids like Deccan, Ganga-5, Deccan Hybrid Makka-103 and DHM – 1 which are resistant to this disease to minimise the disease intensity. The stripes in advanced stage become necrotic with. The infected stalks may split longitudinally into a mass of fibres. Early maize crops escape infection because by the time conidia are produced they develop resistance on the collateral host susceptibility occurs only upto about 15 days of age. Rhizoctonia/Fusarium - Root rot diseases are caused by a number of different pathogenic fungi affecting the roots. Incidence: Stalk borers are present wherever maize is grown; damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars which feed on the stalk, whorl or the ear of the maize. Bacteria overwinter in the gut of the corn flea beetle. mays) known in many countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric time The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. induce both local and systemic infection. Insects and fungi from Europe became serious pests in the United States, too. The main objective of this article to provide best knowledge of maize disease and management so that maize production in India should be improved. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations. Northern Corn Leaf Blight. Diseases caused by viruses (such as Maize Streak transmitted by leafhoppers of the genus Cicadulina in countries of tropical subequatorial Africa, Rayado Fino transmitted by the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Latin America and southern USA, Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus transmitted either through infectious sap or the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis) are creating concern in maize growers around the world. A few months later it was spreading through the scattered islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar and the Seychelles. Several mycotoxins have been identified produced by fungi, mainly in the genus Aspergillus and Fusarium which affect birds and mammals fed with infected kernels. Some diseases can live on the stubble between seasons and infect a healthy planted crop. Use of disease resistance varieties, i.e. Regular irrigations particularly during flowering time should be provided. Follow crop rotation with non host or antagonist crops like ground nut, sorghum, maize… In cases where your field was infested, you should remove all stubble from the previous season (see disease section for more details). Growers can also use hybrids with multiple Bt traits for the same pest to assist with resistance management. The African maize stalk borer and spotted stem borer cause more damage to cereal crops than any other pests in sub-Saharan Africa. The basal internodes develop soft rot and give a water soaked appearance. In susceptible seedling plants, less than 4 weeks after seedling infection becomes systemic in all growth, subsequent to downward growth of mycelium and colonization of shoot apex (growing point). Roots are also invaded and show black sclerotia in the disorganised tissue. For maize, threatening organisms are stem borers, nematodes, bacteria, viruses, fungi and weeds are some of the organisms that have a negative impact on the maize plant. Spiroplasma-caused diseases like Corn Stunt transmitted mainly by the leafhopper D maidis is important in tropical Latin America, the Caribbean and Southern USA. Wilting generally starts from the top leaves, Leaves become dull green, eventually loose colour and become dry. Plants affected by M. phaseolina show evidence of pre-mature ripening. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. Downey growth is seen on the both leaf surfaces. The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. Most of these diseases are prevalent on maize in the humid coastal and rainforest areas if the tropics and are less troublesome in the drier areas of the interior. Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907. Field sanitation, crop rotation should be followed. Maize is subject to attack by a number of pests and diseases, mainly in insect pests (stalk borers and armyworms) and soil pests (wireworms and rootworms). Wireworms, which are also serious pests of maize, have a more limited distribution than ear and stalk borers. They overwinter in litter and trash around fields. The corn earworm in the genus Heliothis is another very important pest recorded in North and South America, Europe, India, the Far East, Africa and Australia. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The disease generally appears early after flowering. In case of C. acremonium only vascular burdles get blackened. 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2020 pests and diseases of maize crop