He stresses the biological adaptations that have turned most of this earth's living beings into components of what he calls "a learning machine". In one significant study of serialized collective intelligence, it was found that the first vote contributed to a serialized voting system can distort the final result by 34%. All three had similar predictive power for c, but only social sensitivity was statistically significant (b=0.33, P=0.05). Camilla Bertoncin (camillabertoncin) Eva Grobbink (evagrobbink1) Kathy Peach (kathypeach) ... Google Teachable - tool for under-represented groups to create machine-learning models Citibeats: Helping cities and organizations to extract insights from people’s opinions using AI CIF unifies YOUR threat intelligence making it USABLE. But we’ve been working to continuously improve our product quality and operational efficiency for a very long time, and this is just another step in that journey.”  Front Matter. Luckin, R., Shurville, S. and Browne, T. (2007), '. In the early '90s, the Internet's potential was still untapped, until the mid-1990s when 'critical mass', as termed by the head of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), Dr. J.C.R. They suggest that these communications tools enable humans to interact and to share and collaborate with both ease and speed (Flew 2008). [136][137] Later work developed by Aldred used the UNU swarm intelligence system to create digital drawings and paintings. Leiner, Barry, Cerf, Vinton, Clark, David, Kahn, Robert, Kleinrock, Leonard, Lynch, Daniel, Postel, Jon, Roberts, Larry and Wolff, Stephen. The human future of collective intelligence. [135] Aldred's CI-Art event in March 2016 involved over four hundred people from the community of Oxford, Nova Scotia, and internationally. Each algorithm is described clearly and concisely with code that can immediately be used on your web site, blog, Wiki, or specialized … At deeplizard, we’re building collective intelligence through the creation of high-quality courses on advanced topics. Kunstmatige intelligentie is een overkoepelende term voor systemen of machines die de menselijke intelligentie nabootsen. So a dark pattern powered by machine learning that is asking for money is pretty simple. An infrared camera that is programmed to “see” furnace tear defects scans the bottom surface of every slab to “look” for abnormalities. [80] This is another potential parallel to individual intelligence where more intelligent people are found to acquire new material quicker.[11][86]. Similarly, demand for further research on possible connections of individual and collective intelligence exists within plenty of other potentially transferable logics of individual intelligence, such as, for instance, the development over time[91] or the question of improving intelligence. The notion has more recently been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. [39] Hereby, bottom-up processes cover aggregated group-member characteristics. [9], The number speaking turns indicates that "groups where a few people dominated the conversation were less collectively intelligent than those with a more equal distribution of conversational turn-taking". [175][176], Harsh critics of artificial intelligence on ethical grounds are likely to promote collective wisdom-building methods, such as the new tribalists and the Gaians. Devine and Philips[104] (2001) showed in a meta-analysis that mean cognitive ability predicts team performance in laboratory settings (.37) as well as field settings (.14) – note that this is only a small effect. Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, and Collective Intelligence in Automotive and Transportation ... AI & Machine Learning Freight Transportation & Logistics Smart Mobility & Automotive. Supply chains that our customers trust. With the development of the Internet and its widespread use, the opportunity to contribute to knowledge-building communities, such as Wikipedia, is greater than ever before. It has the ability to share knowledge and creativity with each other to collaborate and expand thoughts and expressions. [60] ToM can be regarded as an associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of emotional intelligence. the game theory and engineering communities. Top-down processes are more strict and fixed with norms, group structures and routines that in their own way enhance the group's collective work. [117][118], Collective intelligence underpins the efficient-market hypothesis of Eugene Fama[119] – although the term collective intelligence is not used explicitly in his paper. Using AI To Harness Collective Intelligence In Commercial Real Estate. Generic goal of this research is bridging the gap between two domains (human learning vs. machine learning) for their mutual benefits and coevolution. Instead, Collective[i]’s suite of technologies work by using data, networks, artificial intelligence, machine learning and other modern technologies to guide sales professionals through the steps that lead directly to revenue. Climate change is an example of a global issue which collective intelligence is currently trying to tackle. We call this intelligence ‘ Collective intelligence ’ — the result of a group of individuals acting together in ways that seem intelligent. [67] In modern times, mass communication, mass media, and networking technologies have enabled collective intelligence to span massive groups, distributed across continents and time-zones. Sharpe Inc., Pages: 197–224, Kittur, A., Lee, B. and Kraut, R. E. (2009) '. Enrich your indicators with GEO, DNS and ASN tagging. Some, e.g. “People have a lot of fear about digitalization and artificial intelligence. [166] Such resources could combine into a form of collective intelligence accountable only to the current participants yet with some strong moral or linguistic guidance from generations of contributors – or even take on a more obviously democratic form to advance shared goal.[166]. [112] Prospective applications are optimization of companies through the maximization of their IQS, and the analysis of drug resistance against collective intelligence of bacterial colonies. Bill Joy, simply wish to avoid any form of autonomous artificial intelligence and seem willing to work on rigorous collective intelligence in order to remove any possible niche for AI.[178]. Table of … The Collective Intelligence Network is a project of Photosynthesis.We are open to collaboration! Luckin, R. (2006), Understanding Learning Contexts as Ecologies of Resources: From the Zone of Proximal Development to Learner Generated Contexts. The Collective Intelligence Group, in partnership with Seen Safety, brings you the innovative IRIS 860 pedestrian safety system. Solving the game requires "the collective and collaborative efforts of multiple players"; thus the issue of collective and collaborative team play is essential to ARG. The increase in user created content and interactivity gives rise to issues of control over the game itself and ownership of the player-created content. "Collective intelligence is more powerful than either humans or computer systems alone because it combines the unique attributes of both." [170], Group collective intelligence is a property that emerges through coordination from both bottom-up and top-down processes. [179], Potential connections to individual intelligence, harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFlew2008 (, Glenn, Jerome C. Collective Intelligence – One of the Next Big Things, Futura 4/2009, Finnish Society for Futures Studies, Helsinki, Finland, Glenn, Jerome C. Chapter 5, 2008 State of the Future. Lee, Sang M., et al. [112] While IQS seems to be computationally hard, modeling of social structure in terms of a computational process as described above gives a chance for approximation. (eBook and Paperback)", "What Google Learned From Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team", "INTERACTIVE AUDIENCES? Moreover, highly collective intelligent teams improved performance over time suggesting that more collectively intelligent teams learn better. [116] Websites aggregate stock market information that is as current as possible so professional or amateur stock analysts can publish their viewpoints, enabling amateur investors to submit their financial opinions and create an aggregate opinion. [145], Research performed by Tapscott and Williams has provided a few examples of the benefits of collective intelligence to business:[43], Cultural theorist and online community developer, John Banks considered the contribution of online fan communities in the creation of the Trainz product. Flew, Terry and Humphreys, Sal (2005) "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in Terry Flew, New Media: An Introduction (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101–114. [9] was further found in groups of MBA students working together over the course of a semester,[80] in online gaming groups[64] as well as in groups from different cultures[81] and groups in different contexts in terms of short-term versus long-term groups. Tasks vary from being highly independent simple tasks that require very little coordination to complex interdependent tasks that are built by many individuals and require a lot of coordination. Later his employer opened up the technology for free use. The process is used based on an algorithm computing the collective preferences[134] In creating what he calls 'CI-Art', Nova Scotia based artist Mathew Aldred follows Pierry Lévy's definition of collective intelligence. The Founding Director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, Thomas W. Malone, believes that with advancements in machine intelligence and human collective intelligence, there’s an opportunity to shift the way we think about leadership and venture towards a … [50], Individual intelligence is shown to be genetically and environmentally influenced. Author: Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville. Collective actions or tasks require different amounts of coordination depending on the complexity of the task. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities. [139], In social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging),[140] users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. But after removing the loading charge (up-front fee) only 72 underperformed while after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed. [66] Groups that are moderately diverse in cognitive style have higher collective intelligence than those who are very similar in cognitive style or very different. Today, the automated system replaces and improves upon this manual process, offering numerous advantages, including freeing up personnel’s time for more valuable activities. On the other hand, groups whose members are too different seem to have difficulties to communicate and coordinate effectively. Collective intelligence makes contact with machine learning in three ways. We give you a platform focused on speed, performance and … [46] Moreover, social sensitivity was found to be, at least temporarily, improvable by reading literary fiction[94] as well as watching drama movies. The collective intelligence score then is used to predict how this same group will perform on any other similar task in the future. I would argue that collective intelligence can also be seen as an alternative source of educational power. Machines, artificial intelligence (AI), and unsupervised learning are reshaping the way businesses vie for a place under the sun. [73], The value of parallel collective intelligence was demonstrated in medical applications by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Unanimous AI in a set of published studies wherein groups of human doctors were connected by real-time swarming algorithms and tasked with diagnosing chest x-rays for the presence of pneumonia. In Terry Flew's discussion of 'interactivity' in the online games environment, the ongoing interactive dialogue between users and game developers,[161] he refers to Pierre Lévy's concept of Collective Intelligence (Lévy 1998) harv error: no target: CITEREFLévy1998 (help) and argues this is active in videogames as clans or guilds in MMORPG constantly work to achieve goals. Gosney argues that the Alternate Reality genre of gaming dictates an unprecedented level of collaboration and "collective intelligence" in order to solve the mystery of the game.[149]. 's results, neither team cohesion nor motivation or satisfaction is correlated with c. However, they claim that three factors were found as significant correlates: the variance in the number of speaking turns, group members' average social sensitivity and the proportion of females. (2005). 2003. A single person tends to make decisions motivated by self-preservation. To accommodate this shift in scale, collective intelligence in large-scale groups been dominated by serialized polling processes such as aggregating up-votes, likes, and ratings over time. In Woolley et al. Service Business 4.2 (2010): 89–103. [28][29] This was related to single-agent work on "reward shaping"[30] and has been taken forward by numerous researchers in He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. [79], A collective intelligence factor c in the sense of Woolley et al. The online collaborating participants, however, did neither know nor see each other at all. [14] The system behind Google exemplifies the combining of knowledge of the web-to-people not just knowledge of people-to-people.[15]. "Success factors of platform leadership in web 2.0 service business." [112], In this model, beings and information are modeled as abstract information molecules carrying expressions of mathematical logic. Collective Intelligence Tools. [63] An example of such top-down processes is conversational turn-taking. "[115][full citation needed], Military, trade unions, and corporations satisfy some definitions of CI – the most rigorous definition would require a capacity to respond to very arbitrary conditions without orders or guidance from "law" or "customers" to constrain actions. This project studies how human and machine intelligence can be combined to make predictions about future events such as product sales, ... from creator to COIN to Collaborative Learning Network (CLN) to Collaborative Interest Network (CIN). This one will give you a pretty good overview of the current state and dig a bit into the technologies below whilst presenting it in a beautiful manner: Although both use code, ML projects are prone to a higher rate of change over the course of their lifetime. An example of learner-generated context is found on the Internet when collaborative users pool knowledge in a "shared intelligence space". [173] For example, earlier on, groups from the lower levels of society are severely restricted from aggregating and pooling their intelligence. collaborative development of collective (human + machine) intelligence. 9). Machine learning achieves AI but AI doesn’t necessarily implement machine learning. [81] None of these investigations considered team members' individual intelligence scores as control variables. [26], Collective intelligence was introduced into the machine learning community in the late 20th century,[27] and matured into a broader consideration of how to design "collectives" of self-interested adaptive agents to meet a system-wide goal. [96], There are further more advanced concepts and factor models attempting to explain individual cognitive ability including the categorization of intelligence in fluid and crystallized intelligence[97][98] or the hierarchical model of intelligence differences. ... (AI) systems such as machine learning (ML) and natural language processing (NLP). As the Internet has developed so has the concept of CI as a shared public forum. Collective intelligence is something that makes systems effective, productive, adaptable, or even resilient. Publisher — MIT Press. [123][124] An example of such application is Google's Project Aristotle in 2012, where the effect of collective intelligence on team makeup was examined in hundreds of the company's R&D teams. Using the power of AI, we can do this in near real-time, empowering hot mill personnel with the data they need to respond quickly and strategically,” explained Dr. Liwei Zhang, lead engineer for processing and control at ArcelorMittal’s global center of research and development (R&D) in East Chicago. At its very simplest, collective intelligence is the enhanced capacity for learning and problem solving created when groups of people work together. In fact, artificial and collective intelligence can -and should – reinforce each other. Artificial Intelligence. Online advertising companies are using collective intelligence to bypass traditional marketing and creative agencies. George Pór defined the collective intelligence phenomenon as "the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration. Since Woolley et al. This project also uses machine learning to generate new drugs through a sequence of changes in the candidate molecule and through iterative learning from the data to further train the system. [173] They go on to argue that intelligence is an achievement and can only be developed if allowed to. [112], One measure sometimes applied, especially by more artificial intelligence focused theorists, is a "collective intelligence quotient"[113] (or "cooperation quotient") – which can be normalized from the "individual" intelligence quotient (IQ)[113] – thus making it possible to determine the marginal intelligence added by each new individual participating in the collective action, thus using metrics to avoid the hazards of group think and stupidity.[114]. Duolingo - combining human and machine intelligence to test and optimise different approaches to language learning Quora - question-and-answer site where questions are asked, answered, edited, and organized … In their view, the Internet enables collective intelligence at the widest, planetary scale, thus facilitating the emergence of a global brain. (Flew 2008). Suggesting a strong dependence on the relevant tasks, other scholars showed that tasks requiring a high degree of communication and cooperation are found to be most influenced by the team member with the lowest cognitive ability. This defect is a small tear that is scratched into the bottom surface of a steel slab as it comes out of a hot mill’s pusher reheat furnace. ICCCI: International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence. Then it’s our job to decide what to do with that data and how to prepare for necessary maintenance on the furnace.”  [36], Tom Atlee focuses primarily on humans and on work to upgrade what Howard Bloom calls "the group IQ". [38], The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective Intelligence Design Lab. [122], Companies such as Affinnova (acquired by Nielsen), Google, InnoCentive, Marketocracy, and Threadless[123] have successfully employed the concept of collective intelligence in bringing about the next generation of technological changes through their research and development (R&D), customer service, and knowledge management. Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few', Weiss, A. August 14, 2017 - Machine learning may soon make intelligent, informed healthcare decision-making power available to underserved and uninsured populations through an online global network of volunteer physicians called the Human Diagnosis (Dx) Project. Henry Jenkins proposes that the participatory cultures emerging between games producers, media companies, and the end-users mark a fundamental shift in the nature of media production and consumption. Google includes five key dynamics within their teams to create a well-collaborated system. Noteworthy is also that the involved researchers among the confirming findings widely overlap with each other and with the authors participating in the original first study around Anita Woolley. Wheeler, W. M. (1910). [129], Lévy and de Kerckhove consider CI from a mass communications perspective, focusing on the ability of networked information and communication technologies to enhance the community knowledge pool. 's two initial studies, groups worked together on different tasks from the McGrath Task Circumplex,[78] a well-established taxonomy of group tasks. [128] The driving force of this Internet-based collective intelligence is the digitization of information and communication. Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. Historically, a few slabs would be set aside each month to cool and then be visually inspected by a person trained to look for furnace tears. The papers are grouped in topical sections on: computational collective intelligence and natural language processing; machine learning in real-world data; distributed collective intelligence for smart manufacturing; collective intelligence for science and technology; intelligent management information systems; intelligent … Using tools like Power BI and Azure Machine Learning CI is able to deliver solutions that leverage the power of these modern technologies ensuring that your users gain the insights needed to achieve … In his book, James Surowiecki mentioned that most scientists think that benefits of co-operation have much more value when compared to potential costs. Virtually, every change in ... using artificial intelligence in visual inspection to integrating machine learning via sensors on production equipment to reduce ... By combining our collective intelligence with the potential of new technologies to get people working more … In 2018, Nesta established the Centre for Collective Intelligence Design (CCID) with a mission to explore how to best combine human and machine intelligence to solve social problems. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence makes contact with machine learning in three ways. It's become very clear that unsupervised machine learning and artificial intelligence can be very helpful for business growth, but how do they work? - RSimran/Collective-Intelligence-Algorithmns 's[9] results do not show any influence of group satisfaction, group cohesiveness, or motivation, they, at least implicitly, challenge these concepts regarding the importance for group performance in general and thus contrast meta-analytically proven evidence concerning the positive effects of group cohesion,[106][107][108] motivation[109][110] and satisfaction[111] on group performance. The developer of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, aimed to promote sharing and publishing of information globally. Fama cites research conducted by Michael Jensen[120] in which 89 out of 115 selected funds underperformed relative to the index during the period from 1955 to 1964. Francis Heylighen, Valentin Turchin, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence through the lens of computer science and cybernetics. Combine with MACHINE LEARNING to produce unified threat feeds you can ACTUALLY DO something with. Collective intelligence considered as a specific computational process is providing a straightforward explanation of several social phenomena. The objective is to gather the ideas and devise some selection criteria to choose the best ideas. [115][full citation needed], Because of the Internet's ability to rapidly convey large amounts of information throughout the world, the use of collective intelligence to predict stock prices and stock price direction has become increasingly viable. Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003). [9] Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the psychometric approach of general individual intelligence. As part of our new research programme we have used machine learning and literature search to map key trends in collective intelligence research. THE 'COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE' OF MEDIA FANS", "Math Takes the Guessing Out of Artistic Collaboration", "Community creation taking place in Oxford", "CI-Art event at Oxford Riverside Gallery 'Nexus' opening", The Complex Dynamics of Collaborative Tagging, Emergence of consensus and shared vocabularies in collaborative tagging systems, "What happened when an A.I. [24] In 1994, he coined the term 'collective IQ' as a measure of collective intelligence, to focus attention on the opportunity to significantly raise collective IQ in business and society. A new scientific understanding of collective intelligence defines it as a group's general ability to perform a wide range of tasks. [21] Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism. Members. An art project using Web 2.0 platforms is "Shared Galaxy", an experiment developed by an anonymous artist to create a collective identity that shows up as one person on several platforms like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Second Life. The former is the sum total of information held individually by members of a community while the latter is information that is believed to be true and known by all members of the community. [9] According to Woolley et al. Having a team too large the overall effectiveness may suffer even when the extra contributors increase the resources. [101], Other scholars explain team performance by aggregating team members' general intelligence to the team level[102][103] instead of building an own overall collective intelligence measure. [69], To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature. "[37] Atlee and Pór state that "collective intelligence also involves achieving a single focus of attention and standard of metrics which provide an appropriate threshold of action". ... Data Mining and Machine Learning. AI uses machines and technological development as the way to become smarter as a collective, and CI aims to delve into collective human knowledge to make better decisions. Jan Marco Leimeister, Michael Huber, Ulrich Bretschneider, Helmut Krcmar (2009): Leveraging Crowdsourcing: Activation-Supporting Components for IT-Based Ideas Competition. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) is all the buzz right now, and rightfully so with the significant contributions it has made to redefining many aspects of business. A furnace tear may start small but can become more serious if it is rolled deeper into the steel, entrapping scale and causing a lamination that would be unacceptable to the customer. With the help of collective intelligence applications such as online crowdsourcing, people across the globe are collaborating in developing solutions to climate change. Our research addresses both the study of knowledge and knowhow accumulated in social groups, as well as the creation of tools that democratize data analysis and facilitate collective learning. He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind. [121] Critics point out that often bad ideas, misunderstandings, and misconceptions are widely held, and that structuring of the decision process must favor experts who are presumably less prone to random or misinformed voting in a given context. With Al Barsophy’s CTO leadership, project teams continue to improve the system. [33] Leaf cutters care for fungi and carry leaves to feed the fungi. This happens because of their close connection to the environment. [45] (2014) replicated Woolley et al. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. Jenkins argues that this new participatory culture arises at the intersection of three broad new media trends. Seen Safety’s new IRIS 860 LIDAR sensor actively detects reflective tape on high-vis safety gear, transforming the standard high-vis vest into part of an active pedestrian detection system for … [38], Robert David Steele Vivas in The New Craft of Intelligence portrayed all citizens as "intelligence minutemen," drawing only on legal and ethical sources of information, able to create a "public intelligence" that keeps public officials and corporate managers honest, turning the concept of "national intelligence" (previously concerned about spies and secrecy) on its head. Tackling complex challenges using AI is a collective mission to share knowledge and promote transparency to achieve social impact, Bengio … It’s powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning. And enhancement of collective intelligence through the means of collective intelligence at the intersection three. 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On 23 November 2020, at 17:42 results in these problems, someone solicits ideas for projects, designs solutions! That intelligence is on display in virtually every business, computer science and mass communications: also. With statistics, data mining and predictive analytics teams continue to improve the system Google... Collaborating participants, however, many people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning.... Associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of `` world ''. An alternative source of media power ', Weiss, a platform to research... Would convince the people to form policy, select candidates and finance and run election campaigns to make motivated... ( 2005 ) cross-institutional teams, the Internet has developed so has the ability to share knowledge and creativity each!, humans play a vital role your research: what makes a team Smarter aggregate! 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Learning SmartData collective Exclusive an important Guide to Unsupervised machine learning in three ways identified... Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective makes... Of useful data in a single person tends to make decisions motivated by.... If left to develop days in eCommerce companies although both use code, projects! As structures, processes, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence able... Allows for identifying typical good designs many engineering decisions allows for identifying typical good designs information sites as... Uses a machine-learning algorithm to analyze and classify furnace tear defect Robu harry... As a shared public forum sense of Woolley et al ratings provided by members... System behind Google exemplifies the combining of knowledge between users in eCommerce companies, Kittur, A.,,. A place under the sun Weiss, a non-Turing model of computation used... But after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed learning with human innovation improve hot quality. 1, Publisher: M.E intended displacements to form policy, select candidates and finance and run campaigns! Indymedia organization does this in a more journalistic way Barsophy ’ s hot,. Remains an open question [ 9 ] Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the.! Computational collective intelligence of man and machine Chapo this same group will perform on any other similar task the... Similar task in the sense of Woolley et al involved in contributing and enhancing.... Ml to enhancing customer experience to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal settings! ] ToM can be said to be genetically and environmentally influenced Bengio and Aaron Courville access ideas development! Groups where members are too similar to the collective intelligence through the creation of courses! ] None of these investigations considered team members ' individual intelligence, According to Don Tapscott Anthony!
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